1. Presence of Noroviruses and Other Enteric Viruses in Sewage and Surface Waters in The Netherlands W. J. Lodder and A. M. de Roda Husman* Microbiological Laboratory for Health Protection, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands.
*Corresponding author. Mailing address:
Microbiological Laboratory for Health Protection, National
Institute of Public Health and the Environment, P.O. Box 1,
NL-3720 BA Bilthoven, The Netherlands. Phone: 31 30 274 4325.
Fax: 31 30 274 4434. E-mail:
2. Coliform Bacteria and Drinking Water (Washington State Department of Health)
The following abstracts were accessed: November 23, 2007 and would be very good reading especially for understanding the biological action in a (slow) sand water filter:
3. Biological and Physical Mechanisms in Slow Sand Filtration
Haarhoff, J; Cleasby, JL
IN: Slow Sand Filtration. American Society of Civil Engineers, New York. 1991. p 19-68, 11 fig, 10 tab, 54 ref.
Slow Sand Filtration: Influences of Selected Process Variables
Author(s): Bellamy, William D.; Hendricks, David W.; Logsdon, Gary S.
Citation: Journal AWWA, Vol. 77 Iss. 12, December 1985, Page(s) 62-66
Bacterivory by a chrysophyte in slow sand filters
Monroe L. Weber-Shirk* and Richard I. Dick
School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-3501, USA
Received 1 September 1997; accepted 1 June 1998. Available online 25 February 2000.
4. Information on roofing material: A review of Methods for the Manufacture of Residential Roofing Materials. Hashem Akbari, Ronnen Levinson, and Paul Berdahl. Heat Island Group Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, Ca. 94720. A report prepared for: California Energy Commission PIER Program. June 2003.
5. Read more about viruses here: freedrinkingwater.com/water-education2/87-water-disinfection2.htm
6. Use the information on this page and on this site at your own risk. The Author assumes no responsibility whatsoever for any damages of any kind as a direct or indirect result of the use of any information on this website. The information provided here is free and published with the intent of sharing experience, and is not provided as an absolute solution to anything. This is a work in progress. Mistakes will likely be found. We reseve the right to remove this content or change it at any time we choose. You have been advised.
7.Mechanisms of inactivation of hepatitis A virus in water by chlorine dioxide: Jun Wen Li Corresponding Author Contact Information, E-mail The Corresponding Author, Zhong Tao Xin , Xin Wei Wang , Jin Lai Zheng and Fu Huan Chao Institute of Health and Environmental Medicine of Tianjin, 1 Da Li Road, Tianjin City 300050, People's Republic of China Received 15 April 2003; Revised 7 November 2003; accepted 13 December 2003. Available online 4 March 2004.
8.Information on virus removal: www.moh.govt.nz/moh.nsf/0/5A25BF765B400911CC25708F0002B5A8/$File/07-viruscompliance.doc
9. viruses that are not killed by chlorine in swimming pool water (caliciviruses): www.cumc.columbia.edu/dept/ps/2007/mid/2006/transcript_02_mid37.pdf
10. The Turbidity Tube: Simple and Accurate Measurement of Turbidity in the Field: Written April 2006 for the requirements of CE 5993 Feild Engineering in theDeveloping World and FQ 5770 Community Planning and Analysis. Elizabeth Myre and Ryan Shaw M.S. Candidates. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Master's International Program. Michigan Technological University.
11. SUSTAINABLE DRINKING WATER TREATMENT FOR SMALL COMMUNITIES USING MULTISTAGE SLOW SAND FILTRATION; by Shawn A. Cleary. A thesis presented to the University of Waterloo in fulfillment of the thesis requirement for the degree of Master of Applied Science in Civil Engineering Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, 2005 © Shawn A. Cleary 2005. page 31,32. uwspace.uwaterloo.ca/bitstream/10012/926/1/scleary2005.pdf accessed Sept 27 2008.
12.Toxicant and parasite challenge of Manz intermittent slow sand filter G. Palmateer, D. Manz, A. Jurkovic, R. McInnis, S. Unger, K. K. Kwan, B. J. Dutka Environmental Toxicology. Volume 14, Issue 2 , Pages217 - 225. Copyright © 1999 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
13. Logan, A.J.; Stevik, T.K.; Siegrist, R.L.; Rønn, R.N. 2001. Transport and fate of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in intermittent sand filters. Wat. Res. Vol. 35, No. 18, pp.4359 - 4369.
14. Concise International Chemical Assessment Document 59
First draft prepared by Ms Joann A Wess, Dr. Larry D. Olsen, and Dr. Marie Haring Sweeny, National Institute for Occupational Saftey and Health, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.
World Health Organization Geneva, 2004
15. The Contribution of particles washed from rooftops to contaminant loading to urban streams.
P.C. Van Metre, B.J. Mahler. US Geological Survey, Research and INvestigations, 9802 Exchange Dr., Austin TX. 78754-3898.
16. House Roof Runoff: Is It as Clean As We Think?
Jennifer Gadd and Paul Kennedy. Kingett Mitchell and Asociates
17. Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds in Asphalt and In Correspoinding Leachate Water.
A.J. Kriech, J.T. Kurek, L.V. Osborn, H.L. Wissel, B.J. Sweeney. Heritage Research Group, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.
Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds, 22:517-535, 2002.
18. Information on Tannins from Cornell university (www.ansci.cornell.edu/plants/toxicagents/tannin.html)
19.Western Wood Preservers Ltd. 26035 - 31B Avenue, Aldergrove, BC V4W 2Z6 - Telephone: (604) 857-1900 - 856-7779
20.Using CCA Preservative-Treated Lumber in Gardens and Landscaping. Publication Number: 8128 Inventory Type: PDF File Language: English ISBN-13: 978-1-60107-307-5 Copyright Date: 2004 Length: 8 pp.
University of California http://anrcatalog.ucdavis.edu/Items/8128.aspx
21.EPA evaluation of Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) and other preservatives
22.Corso PS, Kramer MH, Blair KA, Addiss DG, Davis JP, Haddix AC. Cost of illness in the 1993 Waterborne Cryptosporidium outbreak, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
Emerging Infectious Diseases. (serial online) 2003 Apr. Date Cited: 2009-01-03.
Available from: URL: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol9no4/02-0417.htm
23.The significance of algae as trihalomethane precursors
Graham, NJD | Wardlaw, VE | Perry, R | Jiang, Jia-Qian
RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT AND WATER SUPPLY--AN INTEGRATED SYSTEM. pp. 83-89. Water Science and Technology (Water Sci. Technol.). Vol. 37, no. 2.
24.Identification of New Drinking Water Disinfection by - Products from Ozone, Chlorine Dioxide, Chloramine, and Chlorine
Journal Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Publisher Springer Netherlands
ISSN 0049-6979 (Print) 1573-2932 (Online)
Issue Volume 123, Numbers 1-4 / October, 2000
Subject Collection Earth and Environmental Science
SpringerLink Date Monday, November 29, 2004
S. D. Richardson1, A. D. Thruston Jr.1, T. V. Caughran1, P. H. Chen1, T. W. Collette1, K. M. Schenck2, B. W. Lykins Jr.2, C. Rav-Acha3 and V. Glezer3
(1) National Exposure Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 960 College Station Rd., Athens, GA 30605, USA
(2) National Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 W. Martin Luther King Dr., Cincinnati, OH 45268, USA
(3) Research Laboratory of Water Quality, Israel Ministry of Health, 69 Ben-Zvi St., Tel-Aviv, 61082, Israel
25. World Health organization - Rapid Sand filtration fs2_14.pdf (accessed 2009-02-26)
26.World Health Organization - Water treatment S12.pdf (accessed 2009-02-26)
27.Water Technology An Introduction for Environmental Scientists and Engineers. Second edition. N.F. Gray Ph.D., Sc.D.
Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering.
Trinity College, University of Dublin. Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann 2002.
28. Export of atmospheric mercury from Asia.
Daniel Jaffe, Eric Prestbob, Phil Swartzendruber, Peter Weiss-Penzias, Shungo Katoc, Akinori Takamid, Shiro Hatakeyamad, Yoshizumi Kajiic;
Interdisciplinary Arts and Sciences, University of Washington-Bothell, Bothell, WA 98011 8246, USA.
Atmospheric Environment 39 (2005) 3029-3038. Received 11 October 2004; accepted 2 January 2005. (available online at www.sciencedirect.com)
29. Long-range transport of Siberian biomass burning emissions and impact on surface ozone in western North America.
Dan Jaffe,1 Isaac Bertschi,1 Lyatt Jaegle,2 Paul Novelli,3 Jeffrey S. Reid,4 Â´ Hiroshi Tanimoto,5 Roxanne Vingarzan,6 and Douglas L. Westphal4.
GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 31, L16106, doi:10.1029/2004GL020093, 2004
Received 26 March 2004; revised 12 June 2004; accepted 19 July 2004; published 20 August 2004.
30.Technologies for upgrading Existing or Designing New Drinking Water treatment facilities.
EPA/625/4-89/023 March 1990 300048WU.PDF pages 38,39,40,41. virus information is on page 41.
accessed March 11 2009. search for "slow sand filters virus removal" at: http://www.epa.gov/nscep/
31. Roofing Materials' Contributions to Storm-Water Runoff Pollution. Shirley E. Clark, P.E. D.WRE, M.ASCE; Kelly A. Steele, A.M.ASCE; Julia Spicher, A.M.ASCE;
Christina Y. S. Siu; Melinda M. Lalor; Robert Pitt, P.E. D.WRE, M.ASCE; and Jason T. Kirby, A.M.ASCE.
DOI: 10.1061/ ASCE 0733-9437 2008 134:5 638
33. Slow Sand Filtration. L. Huisman, Professor of Sanitary Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering,
Technological University, Delft, Netherlands. W.E. Wood, F.I.C.E. Formerly Chief, Community Water Supply, World Health Organization , Geneva.
World Health Organization, 1974, ISBN 9241540370
www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/publications/ssf/en/index.html accessed 2009-04-03.
34.Environmental Health Assessment Guidelines."Cyanobacteria in Recreational and Drinking Waters". Prepared by: Environmental Health Unit, Queensland Health, GPO Box 48 Brisbane Q 4001 Telephone: +61 7 3234 0938 August 2001 Cyanobacteria in Recreational and Drinking Waters Page 19,20. Accessed: 2009-05-10; link updated 2010-09-27.
35. "TOXIC CYANOBACTERIA BLOOMS; A Field/Laboratory Guide". Dr. M. A. Crayton, Biology Department: Pacific Lutheran University Tacoma, Washington 98447. Funded by: Office of Environmental Health Assessments, Washington State Department of Health Olympia, Washington 98504-7846. 1993. Page 1-19. Accessed 2009-05-10.
36."Removal of microcystins by slow sand filtration" Gesche Grützmacher, Gabriele Böttcher, Ingrid Chorus, Hartmut Bartel German Federal Environmental Agency (Umweltbundesamt, UBA), P.O. Box 330022, D-14191 Berlin, Germany. Environmental Toxicology See Also: Environmental Toxicology and Water Quality Volume 17 Issue 4, Pages 386 - 394 Published Online: 25 Jul 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Funded by: German Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF); Grant Number: 02WT9852/7. Abstract accessed: 2009-05-10.
37. "Degradation of Microcystin-LR through Biological Sand Filters". Lionel Ho, Daniel Hoefel, Christopher P. Saint, and Gayle Newcombe. Pract. Periodical of Haz., Toxic, and Radioactive Waste Mgmt. Volume 11, Issue 3, pp. 191-196 (July 2007) Issue Date: July 2007. Permalink: )http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-025X(2007)11:3(191) Abstract Accessed: 2009-05-10.
38.Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution:
http://www.whoi.edu/redtide/page.do?pid=15777 Accessed 2009-05-10
http://www.whoi.edu/redtide/page.do?pid=15776 Accessed 2009-05-10
39. Cyanosite: (receives support from the Department of Biological Sciences at Purdue University):
http://www-cyanosite.bio.purdue.edu/cyanotox/cyanotox.html Accessed 2009-05-10.
40. "Cryptosporidiosis: An Outbreak Associated with Drinking Water Despite State-of-the-Art Water Treatment". Susan T. Goldstein, MD; Dennis D. Juranek, DVM, MSc; Otto Ravenholt, MD, MPH; Allen W. Hightower, MS; Debra G. Martin, RN; June L. Mesnik, BA; Sean D. Griffiths, BA; Angela J. Bryant, BS; Rick R. Reich, BA; and Barbara L. Herwaldt, MD, MPH. Annals of Internal Medicine; 1 March 1996 | Volume 124 Issue 5 | Pages 459-468
http://www.annals.org/cgi/content/full/124/5/459 Accessed 2009-05-11.
41. North Battleford, Saskatchewan, Spring 2001 - Waterborne Cryptosporidiosis Outbreak. Dr. Rob Stirling, Dr. Jeff Aramini, Dr. Andrea Ellis, Gillian Lim, Rob Meyers, Manon Fleury, Dr. Denise Werker, Document ID; 12102 Language: EN. Health, 3475 Albert Street, Regina, SK S4S6X6, Canada
http://www.publications.gov.sk.ca/details.cfm?p=12102 Accessed 2009-05-11.
42. "Bromate in Los Angeles Water - Suspected carcinogen may lead to new monitoring regulations nationwide". Jyllian N. Kemsley, Associate Editor. Chemical and Engineering News. December 24, 2007 Volume 85, Number 52 p. 9. Photochemistry
http://pubs.acs.org/cen/news/85/i52/8552notw4.html Accessed 2009-05-11.
43. Eberhard ML. Nace EK, Won KY, Punkosdy GA, Bishop HS, Johnston SP. Baylisascaris procyonis in the metropolitan Atlanta area. Emerg Infect Dis 2003 Dec. Available from: URL: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol9no12/02-0795.htm Accessed 2009-07-06
44. Patrick J. Gavin, Kevin R. Kazacos, and Stanford T. Shulman . Baylisascariasis. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, October 2005, p. 703-718, Vol. 18, No. 4. Accessed 2009-07-06. http://cmr.asm.org/
46. Shafir SC, Wang W, Sorvillo FJ, Wise ME, Moore L, Sorvillo T, et al. Thermal death point of Baylisascaris procyonis eggs. Emerging Infectious Diseases. Volume 13, number 1. 2007 Jan. Accessed 2009-07-09 Available from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/13/1/172.htm
47. Huisman, L. (1986). Slow sand filtration. Delft, The Netherlands, Delft University of Technology, Department of Civil Engineering http://www.irc.nl/docsearch/title/109507 accessed 2009-07-28
48. Connecticut Department of Public Health. "Growing Eating Fruits and Vegetables in the Newhall Neighborhood of Hamden." Jan 2004.
accessed 2009 08 04 page 2,3
49. "Gardening on lead and arsenic contaminated soils" College of Agriculture and Home Economics. WSU cooperateive extension. 1999.
accessed 2009 08 04
50. The Myth of Protected Preservatives "The chemicals in pressure-treated lumber will not affect adjacent soils or plants"
Linda Chalker-Scott, Ph.D., Extension Horticulturist and Associate Professor,
Puyallup Research and Extension Center, Washington State University
http://www.puyallup.wsu.edu/~Linda%20Chalker-Scott/Horticultural%20Myths_files/index.html accessed 2009 08 04
51. National Toxicology Program. US Department of Health and Human services.
Toxicology Studies of Dichloroacetic Acid (CAS No. 79-43-6) in Genetically Modified (FVB Tg.AC Hemizygous) Mice (Dermal and Drinking Water Studies)
and Carcinogenicity Studies of Dichloroacetic Acid in Genetically Modified [B6.129-Trp53tm1Brd (N5) Haploinsufficient] Mice (Drinking Water Studies)
NATIONAL TOXICOLOGY PROGRAM, P.O. Box 12233 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. April 2007. NTP GMM 11 NIH Publication No. 07-4428.
National Institutes of Health. Public Health Service. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES.
Complete study (pdf): http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/index.cfm?objectid=912DF933-F1F6-975E-708693C5249E525F
52. New Horizons for Slow Sand Filtration. Dr. David H. Manz, P. Eng.
Published in the Proceedings of the Eleventh Canadian National Conference and Second
Policy Forum on Drinking Water and the Biennial Conference of the Federal-Provincial-
Territorial Committee on Drinking Water, Promoting Public Health Through Safe Drinking Water,
April 3 – 6, 2004, Calgary, Alberta, pp 682 – 692. accessed 2009-09-19.
53. The Association for Environmental Health and Sciences,TPH Working Group Series on Line!. Volume 5 pages 30, 34, 45, 66, 69.
Volume 5: Human Health Risk-Based Evaluation of Petroleum Contaminated Sites: Implementation of the Working Group Approach
Donna Vorhees, John Gustafson and Wade Weisman
1999, pp.98 ISBN 1-884-940-12-9
54. Washnington State Department of Ecology. PERIODIC REVIEW. Glacier Park East; Facility/Site ID #: 349. 1408 US Highway 2 Leavenworth, Washington 98826. Central Region Office
TOXICS CLEANUP PROGRAM December 30, 2008 https://fortress.wa.gov/ecy/gsp/DocViewer.aspx?did=2456
accessed 2010-01-08. See page 4 section 2.3 cleanup levels chart.
55. EPA 440/9-76-023 National Recommended Water Quality Criteria
United States Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Water.
Office of Science and Technology 2009 (4304T) http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/criteria/wqctable/nrwqc-2009.pdf
accessed 2010-01-09 477 pages p203-208
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57. The Red Book http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/criteria/library/redbook.pdf 534 pages p210-223
(the pages are numbered by hand and do not match the page number given in the pdf reader software which was shown as page 242-256 on the system used when accessed)
58. Water Technology An Introduction for Environmental Scientists and Engineers. Second Edition.
N.F. Gray PHD, Sc.D. Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering.
Trinity College, Universty of Dublin. Elsevier Butterworth Heinemann. 2005.
P. 317 - 318 viruses.
p. 270 - 273 slow sand filters
p. 424 - 432 biofilm
59. Visualisation of the microbial colonisation of a slow sand filter using an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope
Esther Devadhanam Joubert; Balakrishna Pillay
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology ISSN: 0717-3458 Vol. 11 No. 2, Issue of April 15, 2008
© 2008 by Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso -- Chile Received August 28, 2007 / Accepted December 6, 2007
60. The relationship of Algal Exocellular Polymer to Biological Flocculation.
Joseph L. Pavoni, Mark W Tenney, Wayne F. Echelberger
Date of Original 1971
Conference Title Proceedings of the 26th Industrial Waste Conference
Conference Front Matter (copy and paste) http://earchives.lib.purdue.edu/u?/engext, 19214
Extent of Original p. 957-974
Series Engineering extension series no. 140
Collection Engineering Technical Reports Collection, Purdue University
Repository Purdue University Libraries
Rights Digital object copyright Purdue University. All rights reserved.
Date Digitized 2009-06-25
accessed Jan 18 2010 12:31 pst.
61. Slow sand filtration for small water systems.
G S Logsdon, R Kohne, S Abel, S LaBonde
Journal of Environmental Engineering and Science, 2002, 1:339-348, 10.1139/s02-025 © 2002 NRC Canada
accessed 2011-04-28 at 0900 PDT.
62. SLOW SAND FILTRATION - DEMAND OPERATED AND CLEANED USING BACKWASH. David H. Manz, PhD, P. Eng., P. Ag
VP Marketing and Production; Oasis Filter International Ltd. Pages 7-9
http://www.oasisfilter.com/MSF_cgy.pdf accessed 2011-09-30; 0925 PDT
63. Parasites and health. CDC.gov Baylisascaris procyonis Last Modified: 07/23/2009 19:18:23
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64. Sophisticated Mayan water management system revealed
TG Daily (Velum Media) Posted on July 17, 2012 - 06:48 by Kate Taylor
The Mayans used sand to filter water accessed 2012-07-17.
65. UC Research Reveals Largest Ancient Dam Built by Maya in Central America
University of Cincinnati. Date: 7/16/2012 3:00:00 PM. By: M.B. Reilly. Phone: (513) 556-1824 Photos By: UC researchers.
The Mayan civilization used sand water filters accessed 2012-07-17.
66. Harvest your own rainwater to drink? King County board considers it.
By VANESSA HO, SEATTLEPI.COM STAFF
Published 11:26 a.m., Monday, July 18, 2011
King county in Washington state considers rainwater harvesting for drinking accessed 2012-07-17.
Links to other sites with information on biological sand filters:
Harvesting rainwater and BioSand filters
Brief description and drawing of a BioSand filter
Filters are used in many parts of the world
Drawings and explanations
Manufacturer of filters
Manufacture of filters
Nice explanation and drawing in English and other languages
Very detailed explanations are here at this site
More detailed explanations here
Commercial site and one of the first developers of the BioSand filter
Pictures and explanations here
this link has information about the size of sand grains: (.15 - .35 mm)
An article on slow sand filter maintenance
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