Water in glass
Sustainable technology: A look at the design, construction and operation of a small scale slow sand water filter. (Building a small slow sand water filter for individual use) 6
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Literature cited

1. Presence of Noroviruses and Other Enteric Viruses in Sewage and Surface Waters in The Netherlands W. J. Lodder and A. M. de Roda Husman* Microbiological Laboratory for Health Protection, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands.

*Corresponding author. Mailing address:
Microbiological Laboratory for Health Protection, National
Institute of Public Health and the Environment, P.O. Box 1,
NL-3720 BA Bilthoven, The Netherlands. Phone: 31 30 274 4325.
Fax: 31 30 274 4434. E-mail:

2. Coliform Bacteria and Drinking Water (Washington State Department of Health)

The following abstracts were accessed: November 23, 2007 and would be very good reading especially for understanding the biological action in a (slow) sand water filter:

3. Biological and Physical Mechanisms in Slow Sand Filtration
Haarhoff, J; Cleasby, JL
IN: Slow Sand Filtration. American Society of Civil Engineers, New York. 1991. p 19-68, 11 fig, 10 tab, 54 ref.

Slow Sand Filtration: Influences of Selected Process Variables
Author(s): Bellamy, William D.; Hendricks, David W.; Logsdon, Gary S.
Citation: Journal AWWA, Vol. 77 Iss. 12, December 1985, Page(s) 62-66

Bacterivory by a chrysophyte in slow sand filters
Monroe L. Weber-Shirk* and Richard I. Dick
School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-3501, USA
Received 1 September 1997; accepted 1 June 1998. Available online 25 February 2000.

4. Information on roofing material:   A review of Methods for the Manufacture of Residential Roofing Materials. Hashem Akbari, Ronnen Levinson, and Paul Berdahl. Heat Island Group Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, Ca. 94720. A report prepared for: California Energy Commission PIER Program. June 2003.

5. Read more about viruses here: freedrinkingwater.com/water-education2/87-water-disinfection2.htm

6. Use the information on this page and on this site at your own risk. The Author assumes no responsibility whatsoever for any damages of any kind as a direct or indirect result of the use of any information on this website. The information provided here is free and published with the intent of sharing experience, and is not provided as an absolute solution to anything. This is a work in progress. Mistakes will likely be found. We reseve the right to remove this content or change it at any time we choose. You have been advised.

7.Mechanisms of inactivation of hepatitis A virus in water by chlorine dioxide: Jun Wen Li Corresponding Author Contact Information, E-mail The Corresponding Author, Zhong Tao Xin , Xin Wei Wang , Jin Lai Zheng and Fu Huan Chao Institute of Health and Environmental Medicine of Tianjin, 1 Da Li Road, Tianjin City 300050, People's Republic of China Received 15 April 2003; Revised 7 November 2003; accepted 13 December 2003. Available online 4 March 2004.

8.Information on virus removal: www.moh.govt.nz/moh.nsf/0/5A25BF765B400911CC25708F0002B5A8/$File/07-viruscompliance.doc

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11. SUSTAINABLE DRINKING WATER TREATMENT FOR SMALL COMMUNITIES USING MULTISTAGE SLOW SAND FILTRATION; by Shawn A. Cleary. A thesis presented to the University of Waterloo in fulfillment of the thesis requirement for the degree of Master of Applied Science in Civil Engineering Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, 2005 © Shawn A. Cleary 2005. page 31,32. uwspace.uwaterloo.ca/bitstream/10012/926/1/scleary2005.pdf accessed Sept 27 2008.

12.Toxicant and parasite challenge of Manz intermittent slow sand filter G. Palmateer, D. Manz, A. Jurkovic, R. McInnis, S. Unger, K. K. Kwan, B. J. Dutka Environmental Toxicology. Volume 14, Issue 2 , Pages217 - 225. Copyright © 1999 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

13. Logan, A.J.; Stevik, T.K.; Siegrist, R.L.; Rønn, R.N. 2001. Transport and fate of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in intermittent sand filters. Wat. Res. Vol. 35, No. 18, pp.4359 - 4369.

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31. Roofing Materials' Contributions to Storm-Water Runoff Pollution. Shirley E. Clark, P.E. D.WRE, M.ASCE; Kelly A. Steele, A.M.ASCE; Julia Spicher, A.M.ASCE;
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36."Removal of microcystins by slow sand filtration" Gesche Grützmacher, Gabriele Böttcher, Ingrid Chorus, Hartmut Bartel German Federal Environmental Agency (Umweltbundesamt, UBA), P.O. Box 330022, D-14191 Berlin, Germany. Environmental Toxicology See Also: Environmental Toxicology and Water Quality Volume 17 Issue 4, Pages 386 - 394 Published Online: 25 Jul 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Funded by: German Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF); Grant Number: 02WT9852/7. Abstract accessed: 2009-05-10.

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Links to other sites with information on biological sand filters:

Harvesting rainwater and BioSand filters

Brief description and drawing of a BioSand filter

Filters are used in many parts of the world

Drawings and explanations

Manufacturer of filters

Manufacture of filters

Nice explanation and drawing in English and other languages

Very detailed explanations are here at this site

More detailed explanations here

M.I.T. site

Commercial site and one of the first developers of the BioSand filter

Pictures and explanations here

this link has information about the size of sand grains: (.15 - .35 mm)

An article on slow sand filter maintenance

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