Water in glass
Rainwater harvesting with Sustainable technology:
A look at the design, construction and
operation of a small scale slow sand water filter.
(Building a small slow sand water filter for individual use)
Please help support this site by purchasing a summary of our research which includes drawings, pictures and construction details to build filters. This page on our blog has the info.   $7.50   Thank you!!
Literature cited

1. Presence of Noroviruses and Other Enteric Viruses
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W. J. Lodder and A. M. de Roda Husman*
Microbiological Laboratory for Health Protection,
National Institute of Public Health and the Environment,
Bilthoven, The Netherlands.

*Corresponding author. Mailing address:
Microbiological Laboratory for Health Protection, National
Institute of Public Health and the Environment, P.O. Box 1,
NL-3720 BA Bilthoven, The Netherlands. Phone: 31 30 274 4325.
Fax: 31 30 274 4434. E-mail:

2. Coliform Bacteria and Drinking Water
(Washington State Department of Health)

The following abstracts were accessed:
November 23, 2007 and would be very good reading especially for
understanding the biological action in a (slow) sand water filter:

3. Biological and Physical Mechanisms in Slow Sand Filtration
Haarhoff, J; Cleasby, JL
IN: Slow Sand Filtration. American Society of Civil Engineers,
New York. 1991. p 19-68, 11 fig, 10 tab, 54 ref.

Slow Sand Filtration: Influences of Selected Process Variables
Author(s): Bellamy, William D.; Hendricks, David W.; Logsdon, Gary S.
Citation: Journal AWWA, Vol. 77 Iss. 12, December 1985, Page(s) 62-66

Bacterivory by a chrysophyte in slow sand filters
Monroe L. Weber-Shirk* and Richard I. Dick
School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University,
Ithaca, NY 14853-3501, USA
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online 25 February 2000.

4. Information on roofing material:  
A review of Methods for the Manufacture of Residential Roofing Materials.
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5. Read more about viruses here:

6. Use the
information on this page
and on this site at your own risk. The Author assumes
no responsibility whatsoever
for any damages of any kind as a direct or indirect
result of the use of any
information on this website. The information
provided here is free and published
with the intent of sharing experience, and
is not provided as an
absolute solution to anything.
This is a work in progress. Mistakes
will likely be found. We reseve the right to remove
this content or change it at any time we choose.
You have been advised.

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Jun Wen Li Corresponding Author Contact Information,
E-mail The Corresponding Author,
Zhong Tao Xin , Xin Wei Wang , Jin Lai Zheng and Fu Huan Chao
Institute of Health and Environmental Medicine of Tianjin, 1 Da Li Road,
Tianjin City 300050, People's Republic of China
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by Shawn A. Cleary.
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Information on Tannins from Cornell university

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University of California

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filtration" Gesche Grützmacher, Gabriele Böttcher,
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P.O. Box 330022, D-14191
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37. "Degradation of Microcystin-LR
through Biological Sand Filters". Lionel Ho, Daniel Hoefel,
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Modified (FVB Tg.AC Hemizygous) Mice (Dermal and Drinking Water Studies)
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[B6.129-Trp53tm1Brd (N5) Haploinsufficient] Mice (Drinking Water Studies)
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The Mayans used sand to filter water
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66. Harvest your own rainwater to drink?
King County board considers it.
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King county in Washington state considers rainwater harvesting for drinking accessed 2012-07-17.

Links to other sites with information on biological sand filters:

Harvesting rainwater and BioSand filters

Brief description and drawing of a BioSand filter

Filters are used in many parts of the world

Drawings and explanations

Manufacturer of filters

Manufacture of filters

Nice explanation and drawing in English and other languages

Very detailed explanations are here at this site

More detailed explanations here

M.I.T. site

Commercial site and one of the first developers of the BioSand filter

Pictures and explanations here

this link has information about the size of sand grains: (.15 - .35 mm)

An article on slow sand filter maintenance